Properties of Engineering Materials | Definition, Classification, Properties

The substance which has mass and occupies space is called as material.

The material which can be used in engineering is known as engineering materials.

Engineering materials can be classified as,

  1. Metal and Non-metals.
  2. Glass and ceramics.
  3. Organic polymers.

Metal:

The substance which can be lose their electron to complete its outermost shell/orbit. It has electropositive character and it has metallic bond and it has the property of ductility and malleability is called as metal.

Metal can be classified as two types,

Ferrous Metal: The metal which contain iron as a main constituent is known as ferrous metal.

Non-Ferrous Metal: It does not contain iron as a main constituent some of them then other like copper, aluminum, brass, silver, etc. Is known as non-ferrous metal.

Non-metals:

Non-metals are chemical elements that do not have metallic properties. The electrons in non-metals behave differently from those metals are generally neutral materials that do not produce heat or electricity.

Non-metals can be classified as two types,

  1. Organic
  2. Inorganic

Various applications of engineering materials are,

  1. Civil and construction.
  2. Automobiles.
  3. Measuring Instruments/Gauges.
  4. Machine tools.
  5. Medical instruments.
  6. Chemical industries, Heat exchangers, boilers, etc.
  7. Space vehicles such as rockets, spaceships, missiles, etc.
  8. Computers, laptops, mobiles, tablets, etc.

Are the various applications of engineering materials.

IS Specifications: IS specifications means Indian Standard system which can be followed to know the standard of an engineering materials.

Free Cutting Steels: The carbon steel which has higher sulphur content that is up to 0.3% is known as free cutting steel.

Role of Density of Material: Density of material can be defined as the mass per unit volume of material is known as role of density of material.

Density = Mass / Volume

It is measured in kg/m3.

Melting Point: The final or initial temperature in which the metal can be get solid to liquid form, it is known as melting point.

Coefficient of Linear Expansion: Coefficient of linear expansion can be defined as the increase in length as per degree raise in temperature.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: When a thermal energy is added to a material, the change in dimension is known as coefficient of thermal expansion.

Thermal Conductivity: The material in which the easiness occurs in a material is known as thermal conductivity.

There are different types of property of material are as given below,

  1. Physical properties.
  2. Mechanical properties.
  3. Chemical properties.
  4. Electrical properties.
  5. Thermal properties.

Mechanical properties:

There are some mechanical properties are as given below,

Stress: The ratio of applied force and area is known as stress.

Stress = Applied Force / Area = P/A

Strain: The ratio of change in length to the original length is known as strain.

Strain = Change in Length / Original Length

Elasticity: The property of material in which when the load is applied on a body it changes its size, shape and volume and returns to its original position after removing the load is known as elasticity.

Plasticity: The property of material in which, when the load is applied on a body it changes its size, shape and volume and do not return to its original position after removing the load is known as plasticity.

Ductility: The property of material in which the material can be produce a thin sheet by rolling or hammering under the application of load is known as ductility.

Malleability: The property of material in which the thin wires can be produce under the application of load without breaking them any rupture or collapse is known as malleability.

Brittleness: The lack of ductility is known as brittleness. The property of material in which the material cannot be break and it is called as brittleness.

Glass and Ceramics:

Glass and ceramics are poly crystalline materials produce through control crystallization of base glass which produce a fine crystallization through the bulk material.

Glass and ceramics are different materials from metals but both have most of similar material properties with each other. Both the materials have properties like high hardness, good insulator to thermal and electricity, high elastic modules, etc. Glasses are amorphous while ceramics are crystalline.

Organic Polymers:

Organic polymers are macro molecules composed of many repeating monomer units. Organic polymers play a very important roles in living things, provides basic structure materials and participating in vital life process. Polysaccharides, polynucleotides and polypeptides are the main types of examples of organic polymers.

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