Construction is a process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Building Construction is the process of adding structure to real property. Construction of buildings and infrastructures plays an important role in the development of countries. Construction differs from manufacturing in which involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction it takes place on location for a known client.
Construction starts with planning of building or infrastructure for construction, design of layout for construction and financing or costing require for construction. A small scale construction includes the construction of houses, residential apartments, buildings, etc. Large scale construction includes constructions of Residential projects, bridges, infrastructures, etc. Large scale construction requires collaboration of multiple disciplines, sometimes it referred as mega projects.
Building constructions are made of public construction and private construction. Public construction includes the construction under government projects such as building of offices, construction of bridges, railways, highways, mega projects, etc. Private construction includes the construction of houses, apartments and complexes, private building projects, etc.
In general, there are three types of constructions:
Building construction includes the construction of residential and non-residential buildings, commercial and institutional buildings, etc.
Infrastructure construction includes the construction large public works such as dams, highways, railways, etc. Infrastructure is also called as heavy civil or heavy engineering.
Industrial construction is used for construction of industrial structures includes manufacturing plants, factories, company layouts, power generation mills, etc.
Construction of Buildings Foundation:
There are several types of foundations are used in the constructions such as pile foundation, pad foundation, raft foundation, spread footing, etc. The selection of foundation depends upon the soil condition and the amount of load applies on the foundation. It depends upon the heavy load such as the several stories of a building apply on the foundation and the condition of soil.
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete:
Concrete is also called as RCC since along with the concrete reinforcement is also present. There are various grades are available of concrete form M15 to M40 and special grades from M60 to M80. The mix concrete grades can be proportion of M sand, coarse sand, slag, cement and slag, ash, water. Those grades of concrete are mixed in a lab for several days to check the strength of concrete and after that the suitable concrete is used at the construction site.
Wood construction is the most popular method of residential construction in the United States. Wood construction is very useful for residential constructions, it improve efficiency, performance and reduce construction waste. Wood construction includes timber framing, wood coating, wood furniture restoration, wood layering, wood tiles, wood floor boards, etc.
Steel and Composite Structures:
Steel and composite buildings are such types of buildings which can be used for industrial construction. These are mostly predominant in the industrial and commercial industry like industrial sheds. The components used for the construction of steel and composite structures are foundation, foundation bolts, columns, steel sheds, trusses, side sheeting, roof sheeting, etc. The steel structures are grown rapidly in industrial areas. These types of structures are used for construction of factory layouts, storages, manufacturing units, logistics, etc. The construction time of steel structure is less and it can be recycling easily.
Basic Steps for Building Construction:
Construction starts with planning, design, and financing; it continues until the project is built and ready for use. Whenever a plan is to be developing for a new building, it is require having an idea about the start and the end of the building project. The basic steps involve in the building project are:
- Preparation of construction site
- Foundation construction
- Structure construction
- Warranty Period
The planning of a building construction involves developing the building layout and the construction plan, the costing of a building material, analyzing the finance, selection of a raw material to be requires for construction, selection of a construction team, etc.
The designing of a building construction is very important for a project. It involves the developing the building layout and the construction plan, make a Bill of Material (BOM) for analysis of the material to be require for the construction, release all the layout drawings which are require on the construction site.
Preparation of construction site:
The construction process begins while the preparation of a construction site. It involves excavation, leveling, filling of ground to prepare the site. The necessary excavation for power, water, and sanitation lines, etc.
Building constructions are mainly constructed on concrete foundations. The selection of foundation depends upon the soil condition and the amount of load applies on the foundation. Shallow foundations are required for low-rise building. For high-rise building, pile foundation is employed. After foundation is selected, the exaction of soil started, it is formed on the foundation of layout.
Structure construction is starts to build the structure/frame of the building after that it finished with masonry walls. It starts after the construction of sub-structure is completed. It involves the construction of roof, siding, flooring works, installation of heating, air-conditioning, ventilation, interior and exterior, etc.
After the project is completed, the contractor will handover the constructed building to the owner and specifies the warranty period of the building based on the materials to be used during the construction of the building.